Books and research


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Exploring Kenya’s Inequality: Pulling Apart or Pooling Together?  

Exploring Kenya’s Inequality: Pulling Apart or Pooling Together? examines the state of inequality in Kenya from the county, which is the highest level of administration to the ward, which is the lowest level of administration in socio-economic indicators like: demography, levels of poverty, gini coefficient, levels of consumption and expenditure, access to education, employment, water, sanitation, housing, and use of energy for lighting and cooking. The report's data and figures have been made available on a dedicated website. This is a follow up of previous SID work on inequality, and seeks to respond to the emerged need of organizing, analysing and using data as a key tool functional to the implementation of Kenyan devolution process.

 Kenya Inequalities website  
The State of East Africa 2013: The Future of Inequality in East Africa  

'Not one, but three East Africas!' This is one of the key insights of the new State of East Africa Report 2013 on the theme One People, One Destiny? The Future of Inequality in East Africa published with support from TradeMark East Africa (TMEA). The State of East Africa Report 2013 goes further than merely describing East Africa from a statistical perspective. It interrogates a fundamental question of great relevance to the process of regional integration, namely, to what extent are the fundamental objectives of the Treaty for the Establishment of the East African Community of promoting 'balanced and harmonious growth', 'equitable distribution of benefits' and 'people-centered' integration, being achieved.

Press release | Executive Summary | Introduction | SoEA website  

Tracking Gender Equality Commitments in the East African Community 

This book is the result of a joint initiative of SID and EASSI (Eastern African Sub Regional Support Initiative for the Advancement of Women) which aimed at developing a regional monitoring and evaluation mechanism for Civil Society Organizations (CSOs) to ensure that the East African Community is accountable for the gender related committments entered into. The initiative emanated from a project undertaken by EASSI entitled 'Towards an East African Declaration on Gender Equality (EADGE)' which embarked on the developmet of a Gender Protocol for the region and a campaign for its adoption by EAC's partner states.  
Public Finance Reforms in Kenya: Issues and relevance under the new Constitution  
This report critically reviews the Public Finance Act 2012 with the aim of highlighting the gains for gender equality as well as accountability structures for the devolved government. It highlights the gaps in financial management within the County government structure and points out key actions to be taken to ensure financial prudence within devolution.
The policy brief provides a summary of findings from a review of the county government system and the fiscal preparedness under the context of devolution.
Report | Policy brief  
Equity and Gender Concerns in Devolved Funds Management Book  
This Publication reviews the gender commitments in Kenya under the new constitution and compares how gender was mainstreamed in the management of devolved funds in Kenya. Comparison is made between two major funds namely Constituency Development Fund (CDF) and Local Authority Transfer Fund (LATF). The study seeks to analyze and review: the formation and composition of previous devolved funds; the impact of these funds in terms of mitigating inequities and inequalities in Kenyan society; the extent to which the benefits of the funds have been shared by communities, as well the potential revenue for the counties. The study also reviews the counties performance with regards to revenue generation and use of the local authority funds.
Book | Policy brief  
Gender Responsive Budget  
The key findings of a SID study on the gender responsive budgeting process and its application to the Kenya’s planning process are presented in three different publications: 1) A Booklet: reviewing some gender responsive initiatives in Kenya and spelling out the key requirements for the successful gender mainstreaming of budgets in Kenya. This publication presents some of the success stories from around the globe, which can be useful ‘take-aways’ especially for policy makers and policy implementation institutions working in the realm of gender mainstreaming in Kenya.
2) A Training Manual: providing a step by step guide for technical officers as well as for civil society organizations intereseted in building capacity of civic leaders who will be involved in preparing budgets and managing finances within the new constitutioanl dispensation. A wide range of tools are presented that can be used to audit national and sectoral policy statements for gender responsiveness. Further Kenyan gains, in the quest to transform the public financial management system through gender mainstreaming, are reported here. 3) A Policy Brief: providing policy recommendations for mainstreaming gender in the planning and budgeting processes in Kenya.
Training manual | Booklet | Policy brief  
The Status of Governance in Kenya. A baseline Survey Report   
This report provides the findings of a national baseline study on the key issues affecting citizen’s awareness, knowledge and practices relating to their civic and constitutional rights and their participation in democratic processes.  The survey was undertaken country-wide between April and May 2012. The findings from the baseline survey provide a useful resource for organizations implementing civic education. They provide information on the general state of knowledge and attention to key reforms and the attitudes of the citizenry on issues around leadership, integrity and national reconciliation, in addition to a situation analysis on the public mood regarding leadership, accountability and perspectives on the devolution process. These findings are meant to be a resource for all stakeholders involved in civic and voter engagement as well as capacity development focused on the forthcoming general elections and devolved country government implementation process in Kenya. The report was commissioned by Uraia Trust, UNDP - Amkeni Wakenya and UN Women, Usawa Ni Haki  
The State of East Africa 2012: Deepening Integration, Intensifying Challenges
This report is part of the State of East Africa series, which began in 2006 with the launch of the State of East Africa: Trends, Tensions and Contradictions-The Leadership Challenge. The State of East Africa 2012, with support from TradeMark East Africa (TMEA), compiles and analyses data across key economic, social and political indicators from the five member states of the East African Community (EAC). One of the key conclusions of the report is that more than a decade since it was rekindled, the EAC integration process is deepening, but the challenges facing the integration units and people are intensifying. The report will hope to fill the void that exists between civil society, private sector and government officials on the challenges and opportunities that the regional integration process presents.'One of the major goals of the State of East Africa report is to provide policy makers, civil society and the private sector with information and analysis that they can use to advocate their concerns and interests with respect to regional integration'. (Juma V. Mwapachu, President, SID).
Press release | Executive summary | Data Poster | Full report  
This publicaton is part of the SID regional programme 'Enhancing Equity in the East Africa Integration Process', which seeks to study and track the evolution of the EAC integration from an equity perspective,  to help the region understand monitor and manage the risks that the region may face if the issue of inequality is ignored. The study looks at equity in four sectors: Trade, Media, Education, and Labour. Differing levels of development among the partner states and their respective economies, and differing policies in the various sectors of these countries, have and will inevitably result in imbalances. However, it is the manner in which these asymmetries are managed - in the distribution of benefits and costs, and the sensitivity we demonstrate when they occur that will determine their disruptive or constructive effect. As the regional economies continue to grow, as businesses and firms continue to expand, the EAC and its countries must confront the question of inequality and poverty. Investing heavily in the education, which is a natural equalizer, is vital.
The report is attempt to audit Kenya’s Vision 2030 from both an income inequalities and a gender inequalities perspective, and to assess the ability of the Vision to respond to both of these persistent development challenges. The publication is intended to help build understandings of government actors engaged in development planning and resource allocation, as well as their partners in civil society and the private sector, on the impacts of inequalities on development performance generally and specifically. 
The book offers new perspectives on Kenya’s democratic gains and gaps. It contextualizes various outcomes of the 2007 General Elections – that is, how religion, ethnicity, public policies, and markets have shaped political identities, party politics and conflicts in post-colonial Kenya. In a sense, the book examines the extent to which these processes account for Kenyans voting patterns and the geographies of hate, discrimination and violence that characterized the 2007 General Elections, especially after the disputed presidential elections.
As part of its contribution to broadening public debate around democratic transition in Kenya, SID gathered a team of experts to think through some scenarios. These scenarios explore some of the challenges and options involved for all Kenyans – before, during and after the 2010 referendum convened to decide whether or not to adopt a new constitution.
The report The Extractive Resource Industry in Tanzania: Status and Challenges of the Mining Sector maps out the performance of the mining sector as one component of Tanzania’s extractive resource industry and analyses the interactions of the different stakeholders. It is hoped that the issues raised in the report will encourage greater informed discourse about the sector; and that this will contribute to the on going efforts to improve the performance of the industry in a way that incorporates increased participation and benefit to the Tanzanian population.
The State of East Africa Report 2008 - Nature Under Pressure presents a snapshot look at the status of the region's water, food production and energy resources. The message is clear: the combination of a rapid increase in the number of people in East Africa with their aspiration for prosperity or desperate flight from grinding poverty is exerting significant pressure on the abundance with which nature gifted this region. The report challenges us to pay attention to nature's clues, to understand the connection between human activity and nature's response, and to adapt our livelihood strategies to the changing reality.
East African Scenarios to 2040 - What do we want? What might we become?  
This publication presents three possible alternative futures for the region. I want to be a Star is a story about a region spell-bound by the promise of her natural riches and beauty. She welcomes all suitors and hands them control over her destiny. I want a Visa tells of an executive elite which deploys state power with ambition and dynamism, and discovers the limits of its capacity to control. Usiniharakishe describes the struggle by ordinary East Africans to retain and reclaim control over their most local assets and who learn that success is not guaranteed.
The research compendium presents the output of a research process which started in February 2005 when a group of East Africans met to identify and discuss the major challenges and opportunities facing the region as it sought to consolidate and expand economic, social and ultimately political integration through the East African Community. The compendium's 10 chapters were written by East Africans from academia, policy analysis and civil society.
This second State of East Africa Report takes a look beneath the statistics. Through a collection of seven essays punctuated by eighteen editorial cartoon images, the report reflects on a simple question: Who are we and what shapes us? The essayists are drawn from Uganda, Kenya and Tanzania and examine the identities and influences at work in East Africa. The collection of cartoons offers a pictorial commentary on the region which is at once irreverent and profound in its reflection on East African’ self-image.
This report is a first attempt at a Gender Benefit Incidence Analysis of devolved funds. Undertaken in four constituencies, it assesses the gendered outcomes of development investment choices made under Kenya’s Constituencies Development Fund and link these with the efficiency and effectiveness of females (as the more disadvantaged gender) in development efforts. It focuses mainly on investments in health and education sectors.
This publication, launched in Nairobi on 15 May 2007, analyses inequality from the perspectives of 8 different sectors of Kenya’s economy. Contributions have been made by some of the leading experts in Kenya. As the first volume in this planned series of publications on inequality in the region, this book carries on from Pulling Apart: Facts and Figures on Inequality in Kenya, which was launched in October 2004 and looked at the status of inequality in Kenya. The publications are part of SID’s programme on Rich and Poor: National Discourses on Poverty, Inequality and Growth (RAPP).
The State of East Africa Report 2006 is the first in a series of reports that SID publishes annually as part of its East Africa Scenarios Project to explore the major issues shaping the prospects and process of regional integration. In its analysis of over 100 indicators covering Tanzania, Kenya, Uganda and Rwanda, the 2006 report reveals the region's demographic, environmental, economic, governance and conflict profile. It identifies and highlights the major trends, tensions and contradictions that the region currently faces.
This publication is part of the Rich and Poor: National Discourses on Poverty, Inequality and Growth Project (RAPP). Basing its contents exclusively on secondary sources, the report captures the facts and presents the portrait of the unequal development of a nation.
This booklet presents scenarios stories about three possible futures that Uganda might face in the coming years, with regards to the big question facing the country of finding the best way to deal with its transition. Looking at the coming two decades, the stories try to explore the paths Uganda might take over this period and what the implications of such trajectory might be. This booklet is one of the outcome of the Uganda Scenarios Project, an initiative undertaken by SID in conjunction with the SID Uganda Chapter.
Tutafika imagines three possible futures for Tanzania as a response to two crucial questions discussed by a group of 40 young Tanzanians: Who are we? And Where are we going?  Three futures are imagined: Yale Yale – a stagnant country in which nothing changes, at least not for the better; Mibaka Uchumi – where political power and economic resources are captured for private benefit; and Amka Kumekucha - a future shaped by adversity but founded on the strengths of social network and created by a shared commitment to respond with imagination. 
As a result of the Kenya Scenario Building Project undertaken by the Institute of Economic Affairs (IEA) in collaboration with SID between 1998 and 2000, this booklet describes four possible futures Kenya could face over the next 10 to 15 years. Amongst the others, one message highlighted here is that it is time for Kenya to unlearn the ideas and habits that have driven the country thus far and to learn double-quick and change direction in fundamental ways. Quick fixes have not been working and it would be unrealistic and foolhardy for Kenya keep applying them.